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Astronomically this week: September 3rd 2017



Sunday September 3, 2017 Neptune parallel Pallas 1:50AM EDT, Mercury conjunct Mars 5:37AM EDT, sun sextile Kronos 7:22AM EDT and square Selene 9:25AM EDT, Mercury contra-parallel Juno 12:23PM EDT, sun parallel Vesta 12:46PM EDT, Jupiter parallel Pallas 6:57PM EDT

Monday September 4, 2017 Jupiter contra-parallel Sedna 00:45AM EDT and square Ceres 1:58AM EDT, sun sextile Poseidon 2:04AM EDT, Mercury parallel Uranus 9:52AM EDT, Venus sextile Selene 12:54PM EDT, Venus square Poseidon 11:13PM EDT

Tuesday September 5, 2017 sun opposes Neptune 1:27AM EDT, Mars enters tropical Virgo 5:34AM EDT, Mercury stations direct 7:29AM EDT, Venus quincunx Neptune 5:32PM EDT

Wednesday September 6, 2017 Full Moon 3:02AM EDT at 13°Pis53′, sun trine Pallas 10:24AM EDT, Mars square Admetos 11:38AM EDT, Jupiter sextile north node 11:45AM EDT, Mercury parallel Transpluto 3:22PM EDT, Mars sextile Apollon 6:10PM EDT, Uranus contra-parallel Juno 6:23PM EDT, Venus square Pallas 8:42PM EDT

Thursday September 7, 2017 Mars conjunct Transpluto 9:22PM EDT

Friday September 8, 2017 Vesta enters sidereal Virgo 2:25AM EDT, Mars contra-parallel 12:13PM EDT

Saturday September 9, 2017 Venus quincunx Pluto 3:22AM EDT, sun trine Pluto 6:45AM EDT, Jupiter opposes Eris 2:02PM EDT, Mercury enters tropical Virgo 10:52PM EDT

Sunday September 10, 2017 Venus sextile Zeus 3:23AM EDT, Ceres enters sidereal Cancer 8:33AM EDT, Mars trine Juno 1:37PM EDT, Mercury parallel Mars 10:03PM EDT

HARTFORD, a city and the capital of Connecticut, U.S.A., the county-seat of Hartford county, and a port of entry, coter- minous with the township of Hartford, in the west central part of the state, on the W. bank of the Connecticut river, and about 35 m. from Long Island Sound.

Pop. (1890), 53,230; (1900), 79,850, of whom 23,758 were foreign-born (including 8076 Irish, 2700 Germans, 2260 Russians, 1952 Italians, 1714 Swedes, 1634 English and 1309 English Canadians); (1910 census) 98,915. Of the total population in 1900, 43,872 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born), and of these 18,410 were of Irish parentage.

Hartford is served by two divisions of the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, by the Central New England railway, by the several electric lines of the Connecticut Company which radiate to the surrounding towns, and by the steamboats of the Hartford & New York Transportation Co., all of which are controlled by the N.Y., N.H. & H. The river, which is navigable to this point, is usually closed from the middle of December to the middle of March.

Near the centre of the city is the old town square (now known as the City Hall Square), laid off in 1637. Here, facing Main Street, stands the city hall, a beautiful example of Colonial architecture, which was designed by Charles Bulfinch, completed in 1796, and until 1879 used as a state capitol; it has subsequently been restored.

On Main Street is the present edifice of the First Church of Christ, known asthe Centre Congregational Church, which was organized in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1632, and moved to Hartford, underthe leadership of Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, in 1636.

In the adjoining cemetery are the graves of Thomas Hooker, Governor William Leete (1603-1683), and Governor John Haynes, and a monument in memory of 100 early residents of Hartford.

Institutions of importance in Hartford are

  1. the American school for the deaf (formerly the American asylum for the deaf and dumb), founded in 1816 by Thomas H. Gallaudet;
  2. the retreat for the insane (opened for patients in 1824);
  3. the Hartford hospital; St Francis hospital;
  4. St Thomas’s seminary (Roman Catholic);
  5. La Salette Missionary college (R.C.; 1898) ;
  6. Trinity college (founded by membersof the Protestant Episcopal church, and now non-sectarian), which was chartered as Washington College in 1823, opened in 1824, renamed Trinity College in 1845, and in 1907-1908 had 27 instructors and 208 students;
  7. the Hartford Theological seminary, a Congregational institution, which was founded at East Windsor Hill in 1834 as the Theological Institute of Connecticut, moved to Hartford in 1865, and adopted its present name in 1885;
  8. and the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy.

The Hartford grammar school, founded in 1638, long managed by the town and in 1847 merged with the classical department of the Hartford public high school, is the oldest educational institution in the state

.On Farmington Avenue is St Joseph’s cathedral (Roman Catholic), the city being the seat of the diocese of Hartford.

During the 18th century Hartford enjoyed a large and lucrative commerce, but the railway development  centralized commerce in NewYork and Boston, and consequently the principal source of the city’s wealth has come to be manufacturing and insurance. In 1905 the total value of the “factory” product was $25,975,651.

The principal industries are the manufacture of small arms (by the Colt’s Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Co., makers of the Colt revolver and the Catling gun), typewriters (RoyalandUnderwood), automobiles, bicycles, cyclometers, carriages and wagons, belting, cigars, harness, machinists’ tools and instruments of precision, coil-piping, church organs, horse-shoe nails, electric equipment, machine screws, drop forgings, hydrants and valves, and engines and boilers.

In 1788 the first woollen mill in New England was opened in Hartford; and here, too, about 1846, the Rogers process of electro-silver plating was invented. The city is one of the most important insurance centres in the United States.

As early as 1794 policies were issued by the Hartford Fire Insurance Company (chartered in 1810). In 1909 Hartford was the home city of six fire insurance and six life insurance companies, the principal ones being the Aetna (fire), Aetna Life, Phoenix Mutual Life, Phoenix Fire, Travelers (Life and Accident), Hartford Fire, Hartford Life, National Fire, Connecticut Fire, Connecticut General Life and Connecticut Mutual Life.

In 1906 the six fire insurance companies had an aggregate capital of more than $10,000,000; on the ist January 1906 they reported assets of about $59,000,000 and an aggregate surplus of $30,000,000.

In the San Francisco disaster of that year they paid more than $15,000,000 of losses. Since the fire insurance business began in Hartford, the companies of that city now doing business there have paid about $340,000,000 in losses.

Several large and successful foreign companies have made Hartford their American headquarters. The life insurance companies have assets to the value of about $225,000,000.

                                           The First Settlements in Hartford

The first settlement on the site of Hartford was made by the Dutch from New Amsterdam, who in 1633 established on the bank of the Connecticut river, at the mouth of the Park river, a fort which they held until 1654.

The township of Hartford was one of the first three original townships of Connecticut. The first English settlement was made in 1635 by sixty immigrants, mostly from NewTown (now Cambridge), Massachusetts; but the main immigration was in 1636, when practically all the New Town congregation led by Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone joined those who had preceded them.

Their settlement was called Newtown until 1637, when the present name was adopted from Hertford, England, the birthplace of Stone.

In 1636 Hartford was the meeting-place of the first general court of the Connecticut colony; the Fundamental Orders, the first written constitution, were adopted at Hartford in 1639; and after the union of the colonies of New Haven and Connecticut, iccomplished by the charter of 1662, Hartford became the sole capital; but from 1701 until 1873 that honour was shared with New Haven.

In 1881 Hartford was made coterminous with the township of Hartford. The city was the literary centre of Federalist ideas in the latter part of the iSth century, being the home of Lemuel Hopkins, John Trumbull, Joel Barlow and David Humphreys, the leading members of a group of authors known as the ” Hartford Wits “; and in 1814-1815 the city was the meeting-place of the famous Hartford Convention, an event of great importance in the history of the Federalist party.

                     The War of 1812

The War of 1812, with the Embargo Acts (1807-1813), which were so destructive of New England’s commerce, thoroughly aroused the Federalist leaders in this part of the country against the National government as administered by the Democrats, and in 1814, when the British were not only threatening a general invasion of their territory but had actually occupied a part of the Maine coast, and the National government promised no protection, the legislature of Massachusetts invited the other New England states to join with her in sending delegates to a convention which should meet at Hartford to consider their grievances, means of preserving their resources, measures of protection against the British, and the advisability of taking measures to bring about a con- vention of delegates from all the United States for the purpose of revising the Federal constitution.

The cessation of the war brought increased popularity to the Democratic administration, and the Hartford Convention was vigorously attacked throughout the country.

Hartford was the birthplace of Noah Webster, who here published his Grammatical Institute of the English Language (1783-1785), and of Henry Barnard, John Fiske and Frederick Law Olmsted, and has been the home of Samuel P. Goodrich (Peter Parley), George D. Prentice, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Charles Dudley Warner, Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) and Horace Bushnell. More than 100 periodicals have been established in Hartford, of which the oldest is the Hartford Courant, the oldest newspaper in the United States.

This paper was very influential in shaping public opinion in the years preceding the War of Independence; after the war it was successively Federalist, Whig and Republican. The Times (semi-weekly 1817; daily 1841) was one of the most powerful Democratic organs in the period before the middle of the ipth century, and had Gideon Wells for editor 1826-1836.

The Congregationalist (afterwards published in Boston) and the Churchman (afterwards published in New York) were also founded at Hartford.

Sources are :

  • Scaeva, Hartford in the Olden Times: Its First Thirty Years (Hartford, 1853), edited by W. M. B. Hartley; and J. H. Trumbull,
  • Memorial History of Hartford County (Boston, 1886).
  • For the Hartford Convention see History of the Hartford Convention (Boston, 1833), published by its secretary,
  • Theodore Dwight; H. C. Lodge, Life and Letters of George Cabot (Boston, 1877); and Henry Adams, Documents Relating to NewEngland Federalism (Boston, 1877)
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